Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google primarily used for touchscreen devices.

The Android operating system was first developed by Android Inc, a software company located in Silicon Valley before Google acquired it in 2005. Since then, software and application developers have been able to use Android technology to develop mobile apps, which are sold through app stores, such as Google Play. And because it is developed as a Google product, Android users are given the opportunity to link their mobile device to other Google products, such as cloud storage, email platforms, and video services.

The android is a powerful operating system and it supports a large number of applications in Smartphones. These applications are more comfortable and advanced for users. The android is an open source operating system means that it’s free and anyone can use it. The android has got millions of apps available that can help you manage your life one or in another way.

The Android OS is designed for phones. Its many features include:

  • Integrated browser.
  • Optimized 2 D and 3 D graphics, multimedia.
  • Bluetooth
  • 3G,4G
  • WiFi
  • Camera
  • GPS
  • Compass
  • Accelerometer
  • Headset layout
  • Storage
  • Connectivity: GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA,NFC, LTE,GPS.
  • Messaging: SMS, MMS, C2DM (could to device messaging), GCM (Google cloud messaging)
  • Multi-language support
  • Multi-touch
  • Video calling
  • Screen capture
  • External storage
  • Streaming media support
  • SQLite

Android Architecture

The android is an operating system and is a stack of software components which is divided into five sections and four main layers that is:

  1. Linux kernel
  2. Libraries
  3. Android run time
  4. Application framework.

Linux kernel:

The android uses the powerful Linux kernel and it supports a wide range of hardware drivers. The kernel is the heart of the operating system that manages input and output requests from the software. This provides basic system functionalities like process management, memory management, device management like camera, keypad, display, etc the kernel handles all the things.


On top of a Linux kernel, there are a set of libraries including open source web browser such as web kit and library. These libraries are used to play and record audio and video. The SQLite is a database which is useful for storage and sharing of application data. The SSL libraries are responsible for internet security etc.

Android run time:

The Android runtime provides a key component called Dalvik Virtual Machine which is a kind of java virtual machine. It is specially designed and optimized for Android. The Dalvik VM is the process virtual machine in the Android operating system. It is a software that runs apps on Android devices.

The Dalvik VM makes use of Linux core features like memory management and multithreading which is in a Java language. The Dalvik VM enables every android application to run its own process.

Application framework:

The application framework layer provides many higher-level services to applications such as windows manager, view system, package manager, resource manager, etc. The application developers are allowed to make use of these services in their application.

Examples of such applications are contacts, books, browsers, services etc. Each application perform a different role in the over  all applications.

Android Versions In Alphabetical Order

Pre-Commercial release versions.

  1. Alpha
  2. Beta

Both of these versions were not publicly released.

Public released Android versions

Android version 1.0

Android version 1.1

Android version 1.5 (CUPCAKE)

Android version 1.6 (DONUT)

Android version 2.0 (ECLAIR)

Android version 2.2 (FROYO)

Android version 2.3 (GINGER BREAD)

Android version 3.0 (HONEYCOMB)

Android version 4.0 (ICE CREAM SANDWICH)

Android version 4.1 (JELLY BEAN)

Android version 4.4 (KITKAT)

Android version 5.0 (LOLLIPOP)

Android version 6.0 (MARSHMELLOW)

Android version 7.0 (NOUGAT)

Android version 8.0 (OREO)

Android version 9.0 (PIE)

Android version 10.0 (ANDROID Q) Not yet released.